We can explain the situation of sciences-especially science of medicine-that have theory and practice at the same time during prehistoric times within the context of primitive accumulations or legends and thereby limited information. Need-based enlightenment or acculturation of humankind progressed in parallel with his need to survive, know himself and people around him and then organize his life with its all aspects. After that long-termed primitive process social sciences and principles, theories and institutions regarding them began to develop. The most significant sign of that was the development of sciences in civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, Anatolia, Ancient Greece, Central Asia, India and China. Therefore science of medicine as the other sciences (mathematics, chemistry, astronomy, physics, philosophy etc.) occurred on that geography and it continued to develop until the medieval age.
Key Words: Ancient age, Medicine, Health, Diseases, Medications