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Innovation works of the Ottoman Empire had been going on for a while. XIX. century, The novelties of Nizamı Cedit initiated by III. Selim continued. However, these developments were not welcomed by those whose interests were damaged and those who could not understand the innovations. Finally, in 1807, the Kabakçı Mustafa rebellion broke out. As a result of the rebellion III. Selim was killed and replaced by II. Mahmut Padişah was built (1808-1839). In 1808, a simple constitution project was prepared by signing the Alliance. During this period, Alemdar Mustafa Pasha grand vizier was built and in the period of his grand vizier he was founded Sekban-i Cedit army instead of Nizam Cedit. In this period, significant steps were taken in the way of modernization by making wide-ranging innovations in the fields of social, political, education, health and army. After the death of II. Mahmut, he was declared a Tanzimat Edict on 3 November 1839, during the reign of Abdülmecit. Ferman was prepared by Mustafa Reşit Pasha. With this reform program, the will of the sultan was limited and it was decided that the government would be governed by the law. Then, in 1856, Ali and Fuad pashas wanted to improve the negative view of the western states on the Ottoman state, giving more privileges to the minorities living in the country. This program, which was prepared for this purpose and named as the Reform Edict, was exposed to intense criticism inside. Although the Edict of Edict gave wide rights to the minorities living in the state, they did not change their attitudes towards the state. Despite this decree, minorities did not give up their love of independence and continued to rebel against the state. In 1861, Abdülaziz was occupied by the Ottoman throne. Abdulaziz traveled to Europe in June 1867. The new sultan had the opportunity to see Europe on this trip. After the 1860s, some circles in the Ottoman state could not see superstitions as a system of philosophy and economics. These circles were more interested in Europe's manners and fashion. In 1876, Abdülaziz was dethroned by a revolution and replaced by II. Abdülhamit was seated on the Ottoman throne. Since Abdülhamit II was aware of the technological superiority of the West, important steps were taken towards modernization. The new sultan wanted the Ottoman administration system to continue. For this reason, it was only favored to buy technology from Europe. Besides, the first Ottoman Parliament was opened with the guidance of Grand Vizier Mithat Pasha. But II. Abd el-Hamid, the Ottoman Russian war, by making the holiday of the council, and so that the parliamentary system has been postponed for a while. II.Abdülhamit thus took over the administration completely. It has made significant progress in the way of modernization. However, it was exposed to intense criticism both internally and externally by the members of the Committee of Union and Progress who wanted to bring back the Constitution of 1876.

Ottoman State, Configuration, Innovation, Modernization.

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    Volume 12

    Our regular volume 12 - OCTOBER  2019 - is now avaliable. We would like to thank all the contributors.

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